Undoubtedly, the essential amino acid contents of each protein are one of the primary nutritional value indicators. Fish proteins are one of the most valuable animal proteins. Because compared with plant proteins that are regularly poor in one or several amino acids, fish proteins contain an acceptable amount of every essential amino acid. Also, these proteins are easily digestible and have a higher efficiency ratio than casein (the primary protein of milk).
Lipids are one of the chemical compounds of muscles, which indicate the highest difference in terms of the amount inside the fish’s body. In certain species, this variation may happen at different seasons, and the lowest volume may coincide with the spawning season. Water and fat constitute almost 80 percent of the weight of fish fillets.
The existence of a considerable amount (15-25% in fish oil) of Omega-3 (EPA and DHA) in most seafood products has increased the importance of adding these products to the human diet.
The unsaturated fatty acids in saltwater fish are mainly omega-3 and omega-6, especially the EPA and DHA, which have the highest nutritional value.
It must be noted that compared with bottom-dwelling fish, surface-dwelling fish are richer in the mentioned nutrients. Various studies on fish oil indicated that the presence of omega-3 fatty acids in the daily human diet can reduce blood pressure by affecting biological activities, reduce the concentration of serum lipids, and significantly prevent strokes and heart failure deaths by reducing the risk of arteriosclerosis and thrombosis.
In addition to proteins and fatty acids, the existing minerals in seafood products have also increased the importance of adding them to the daily human diet. Fish is one of the best sources of fluorine, and saltwater fish is one of the best sources of iodine.
We can conclude that seafood is a valuable nutrient. Due to high biological value protein content and low levels of saturated fat and cholesterol, besides being rich in vitamins, minerals, and trace elements, seafood can play a highlighted role in the future of the human diet.